The city of Kiev has a lot of natural areas within the limits of the city or its surroundings. Indeed, it is surrounded by forests that play an important role in the process of decontamination and in the balanced environment of the city. Within the systems of parks of Kiev, Babyn Yar Park stands out for its size, variety and beauty, but its main feature is having hosted various successive crimes among which the most relevant is the slaughtering of September 1941.
A Master Plan that rearranges the entire area should include specific uses to allocate and redefine the dedication of its areas, like those of construction, recreation, leisure, tribute and refl ection. At the same time the Master Plan should organize the balance between the natural and urban landscapes to realize “Babyn Yar - Dorohozhychi Necropolis Memorial Park” as a place that pays the due respect to the victims, stimulating spontaneous activities over the preservation of these memories which in the right interaction with the present will generate a deep synergy.
For this purpose the site is being reinterpreted in the Master Plan in the light of its history, taking into account, the most current conceptions of Human Rights, and the Rights of Nature. Bodies and land have been violated, trampled, and abused, so after this successive concealments, complicity and indiff erence, the primary fundamental decision is the enhancement of the area.
The first project action will be to properly identify and delimit the area of the entire park boundaries. Just as if done within any crime scene, we have defined a border that demarcates the property. It is a continuous urban piece that through its particularized design and catalog of architectural situations - landscape provided, induces the orderly access of all persons, groups or communities who wish to pay tribute to the victims as well as for everyday use, in both organized or spontaneous use of all citizens. The particularized design of the edge slows and adds a parallel strip to the functionality of the fast roads and creates reactions through various solutions to the various circumstances: thus, for example, the continuous edge will be more uniform and “fast” against the surrounding transport infrastructure, more topographic and “slow” against various features of the terrain, more open and permeable in the area of the slaughter, where there will be a concentration of monuments to the memorials, more sheltered in the areas of buildings which use is far away from the objectives of the memorial park. In turn, this didactic edge will act through the inclusion of observation decks or protected areas for refl ection, so that those who walk the Memorial Park peripherally are involved in a comprehensive experience of it.
The proposal expressly disclaims any intent to represent the tragedy: the principle on this Master Plan is focused on the landscape and the architectural work, with purely disciplinary elements that organize the territory allotted uses, propitiating, in time, a new thematic content, providing a structure for pedestrian routes, abiding by the existing paths that allow and induce a spontaneous, re-signified, concept that finally closes the gap as a site of architectural vacuum in order to enable introspection and reflection at the most Babyn Yar deep.
Both concealments successive massacres are linked to the cancellation of identity, and are associated with the figure of the disappeared. Faced with this sum of culpability, complicity and horror, work on the park should be done with great delicacy and respect since this same nature has been deeply violated and the current grove has the aim to hide it: none of this should be forgotten. The task must be, therefore, a quasi forensic work regarding the recognition of the proper care of the scene, delimitating it, with little intervention, generating mechanisms for the site to recover from his brutal wounds and resurfacing its nature into spontaneous and ideologically driven ideals.
For grove renewal and to accompany the new bar / promenades, new trees or shrub species are proposed, including the Kalyna (viburnum opulus) whose mythical meaning is linked to the origin of the universe, a traditional bush in Ukraine whose red fruit will be settled, and will send a natural signal that every year remember the pre-existence of subdued topography.
The city has overgrown the park, narrowing it, in some cases well planned and others becoming chaotic, blurring the strong preponderance the whole site must have, as a crime scene and as a sacred ground dedicated to honor the victims, to introspective reflection and about the holistic relationship between man and nature, as well as the recovery of this profound memory, its educational values, scientific and cultural perspective that should create a more conscious citizens and collaborate to prevent future crimes.
The idea that runs through the entire area is to assemble the requests made:
1. Honoring the victims, accommodate visitors to the area of slaughter and introduce the concept of collective memory and environment to all visitors, occasional or regular.
2. Generate spaces that allow the construction of various monuments and memorials in an organic way.
3. Sheltering children, students and neighbors who go in search of a space for recreation.
This Master Plan encourages to concentrate in a wide variety of uses linked thematically to materialize over time, with no impositions, having consensus and careful recovering an enhancement of the landscape and the existing architecture.
Thus a number of dedicated proposals for that consensus can be applied in this time line:
1. Reorganizing the park with promenades, respecting the existing paths, and interfacing them together in a new empty space which, rather than the absence of any architectural brand, will originate a refl ection area.
2. The pedestrian structures, which reorganized the entire park, will be used as the support to organize the distribution along the way of new memorial monuments.
3. The generation of a Civic Square Landscape enhances the existing memorials in the area of the current Metro station.
4. The new plantations, those that must be replaced and are accompanying bars or promenades will be carried out with typical species but renewing the current ones.
5. Slowing the fast roads (Melnykova St & Dorohozhytska St) that cross the area, turning them into complete streets, pedestrian areas and cycle paths.
6. Discouraging the construction of new buildings right at the boundaries of the Memorial Park.
7. Keeping certain peripheral buildings that do not interfere with the main activity.
8. Eradicating precarious, obsolete, and ephemeral objects that interfere with the main purpose of Memorial Park buildings.
9. Reconverting some spaces into an area of Convention Centers, Museology of Slaughtering Babyn Yar, and exposing its Historic part of the current TV Centre.
10. Redefi ning the current Psychiatric Hospital in hostels and Schools, Faculties dedicated to the study and dissemination of Human Rights, the Rights of Nature, Anthropology and Forensic Architecture, History and Sociology of Confl icts, and Institutions of Humanism.
11. Reconverting the TV tower in a communications tower to distribute information universally, adding the use of a sightseeing point to the Park and the city of Kiev as a whole.
We are aware that the proposed actions, except some of the landscape, are not viable at present time due to issues of ownership, economic sustainability and the need for a public debate and the arrival to a consensus of consistent policies. However, we believe that the basic ideas proposed in this Master Plan will become the ideal instrument to encourage that debate.
Eventually, It Will only be through the specific debate that we will reach, with the passage of time, the most suitable implementation of regulations agreed by the community, for new institutions and specific competitions in architecture and landscaping, cemeteries, park, natural reserves, the area of Memorials, the boundaries new uses, current expressways, emptiness and inclusive landscaping, will encourage the needed recognition, homage, remembrance and refl ection.
The core aim is to contribute to the historical and anthropological recovery of the past, and encourage and facilitate deep thinking about a future in which humanism and encountering people multiply, free from discrimination, violence and warmongering.
We believe that this way the objectives of creating an integrated Memorial City Park, with a strong character of homage, refl ection, education and custody of humanist values and collective memory will be fulfilled.
Synthetic manifestation of these decisions to be implemented by the implicit rules in this Master Plan, Communications Tower, symbol and communication device
Pablo Pschepiurca — Architect — Buenos Aires, Argentina
Rodrigo Grassi — Architect — Buenos Aires, Argentina
Maria Hojman — Architect — Buenos Aires, Argentina
Employees, students, freelance collaborators: Leandro Crook, Karla Montauti, Maria Jose San Roman, Matilde Hermann, Delfina Ferreiro, Lucia Ayerbe Rant, Pablo Zapata, Juan Carlos Rengifo, Pio Torroja, Alberto Varas
WRITING LANSCAPE AND MEMORY
Because of the importance of past events, the size of the site and the great number of monuments scattered around Babyn Yard park, we decided to not aggregate more architectural informations but to work with existing landscape, in order to enhance the historical facts of the site.
The existence of several historical zones and monuments all along the site, without a coherent logics of its landscape and history, brings along to think a horizontal project based on the path. This path is:
– functional: it links all the sites;
– symbolic: it builds an abstract image of facts;
– a landscape reference: it guides and gives the viewer continuity in a intuitive manner
These horizontal paths are guided, accessible and they are part of the existing landscape, not only not modifying it, but also adapting to it.
In order to face all of these challenges, we have developed a language revolving around 3 main parts:
Part 1 – Abstraction of murdered people
In order to guide the viewer to his remembrance trail, we have chosen simple concrete boxes. They are the symbolic representation of Men in the diversity of the shapes, dimensions and textures.
The concrete boxes are displayed along the paths to guide the viewer and to invite him to contemplation
They stand vertically and remind people’s wounded souls in Babyn Yar.
When they lie horizontally, they follow the viewer in his footsteps.
The concrete boxes are blended in the topography of the place and vanish progressively as the viewer gets closer to the place of contemplation.
Part 2 – Path of memory in the landscape
Our work aims to humanizing historical events. In this manner, in many zones of executions, the path gets the shape and the color of landscape and raises from the ground in order to enhance the symbolic value the soil is endowed with in History. This soil was the support of hundreds of corpses crowded without any sign of consideration or respect.
And that is how the soil converts itself into an account of historical events.
Part 3 – Landscaping
A contrast proposal of landscape is used to reveal facts and sites over the streets of the pilgrimage towards the executions and dense zones of vegetation, where unconnected monuments exist.
Fabian Gutierrez Cortez — Architect — Paris, France
Alexis Perret — Architect — Paris, France
Anne-Lise Aumeunier — Architect — Nevers, France
“Bringing Back To Life The Memory And Renewing The City With A Path To The Past”.
Weaving the future of Kiev through sightscapes that unveil the past and walkscapes that trace the present life.
The invitation is to renew the city at the borders of Babyn yar, transforming it into an active zone that introduces itself to a new center of intimacy and meditation.
“I don’t write about war, but about the human being in the war. I don’t write the history of war, but the history of feelings. I am a historian of the soul,(…) I want to discern in that person the eternal human being. The vibration of eternity. What’s immutable inside him.” Svetlana Alexievich, “War’s Unwomanly Face”
The tragic events that occurred in Babyn Yar, and by extension in any other culture, country or time, have embedded in their DNA the dual struggle between opposites and complements:
-On the one hand, the active, unstoppable and ceaseless relation between life and death; continuity and discontinuity.
-The complementary contradiction between the universal (the human essence) and the particular (individual stories); this is what the monuments commemorate.
-The victimization of the human dignity but also the transgression of nature; both victims and examples of perseverance.
Nevertheless, overcoming the pain and suffering felt, the victims have reached new dynamics that talk about life and of alternatives and resistance to death. The social movement, collective actions, reclaiming of rights and the bet on peace, as well as the transformation of the landscape thanks to the force of nature are, basically, the values that must emerge from the ashes of the tragedy.
Gabriel García Márquez, Novel price winner in literature in 1982, said these words during his acceptance speech: “(…) to oppression, plundering and abandonment, we respond with life. Neither floods nor plagues, famines nor cataclysms, not even eternal wars of century upon century, have been able to subdue the persistent advantage of life over death”.
This is the conceptual base of the project and the origin of its shape. By advocating for CONTINUITY in all scales (temporal, dimensional, and spatial) the project searchesb to enhance LIFE (continuity) and its prevalence over death (discontinuity). This assures a holistic and effective approach.
Main Problem. Today, the space of Babyn Yar is forgotten, therefore, is not part of the city, generating discontinuity of space (with the urban surroundings) and in time, with the history that is hidden and disengaged from the present. This discontinuity have generated a physical abandonment of the space, resulting in a chaotic atmosphere that doesn’t show the meaning and the importance of the tragic events that took place in the place.
The disconnection with Babyn Yar must turn now in a way of living the memory. Main Strategy.
The main strategy is to change this discontinuity into a spatial and temporal continuity. For that purpose, Babyn Yar should turn into a system of connection of the territory, the city and the nearby neighborhoods by continuing the urban morphology (streets that are also the pedestrian ways) into the park. Therefore, in Babyn Yar, citizens will have the opportunity to continue their way through the city at the same time they visit the park and sightsee the monuments. The memory will then be revived, making it part of the daily life. The project will make itself visible through its borders, where new activities will emerge for the locals and foreign.
The individual experience should be dictated by the eyes and the feet, following the memory (represented as red threads). This low cost landscape procedure would guide the visitants from one monument to another, making the walkscapes and sightscapes the phenomenological strategies that will give order to the space.
In an exchange process between the inside and the outside, the memory will project itself to the city as an alive entity and then, in the inside, the city will gently disappear, allowing the being, the nature and the memory to be tuned.
The origin and principal objective of the project is the continuity of life to dignify the victims, encouraging the active reflection around the horrors occurred, by understanding the project as an opportunity of intervening the different scales that transcend the border of the park.
Being conscious of the symbolic importance that the tragic events mean to the Ukrainian culture, and the potential in urban terms that represents this site (dimension and location) as well as the will of tuning different stakeholders around the future of the proposal, is suggested a conceptual and formal structure that allows the development of the plan in a separate, independent and gradual way. Following the principles of the Tactical Urbanism (short-term action, Long –term change) the proposal is to address the task following a successive order of interventions, that should assure the viability in terms of social, economic and energetic sustainability.
Consequently, three SCALES of intervention (that can also be understood as DEVELOPMENT STAGES) are proposed: INDIVIDUAL, BABYN YAR and CITY. Each one include three additional strategies (actions) linked to three procedures (physical interventions), that emerge from the general goals of the competition.
- ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE (Touch the river)
The project is connected to the city of Kiev through an ecological structure (monument to the landscape) that interlinks various spaces and different times. Babyn Yar (past and memory of Kiev) would be linked with the Dnieper River (future of Kiev, a urban renewal zone) and with the Maidán Square of Independence ( Kiev’s present, where the daily life of the city takes place). By doing this, Babyn Yar would become one of Kiev’s three big civic centers.
-ACTIVE BORDER (Project the memory to the outside and take the activity to the inside)
Main roads of the city act as barriers, isolating Babyn Yar from the activities and Kiev’s life, therefore the project stablishes a border that responds to the immediate context, facilitating the connections (pedestrian bridges) and incentivizing new daily activities through plazas that invite the inhabitants to stay at the park, revitalizing Babyn Yar’s surroundings and generating land valorization and investment.
-NEW DOORS (Nodes)
The border is also intervened through portico like spaces that allow the entry to the project with complementary activities that show to the public Babyn Yar’s stories. The placement of this elements respond to the urban structure of the city, by continuing with the streets and turning them into pedestrian paths inside the park, making possible the communion of two worlds. The Active Border and the New Doors, transform into NODES that will attract investment, renovating the urban structure od the surroundings and concentrating the transport systems of the city with intermodal stations that guarantee the spatial and temporal connection in different scales.
BABYN YAR SCALE
-3 ACTIVITY CENTERS (Urban Centers– Kiev in Babyn Yar )
Lengthwise of the axis, at the ends and in the center heart of the park, three activity “moments” are stablished seeking to integrate the city and the community. This three Nodes look to congregate the inhabitants in order to revitalize the area of Babyn Yar, highlighting two preexistences and generating one new landscape presence. The T.V antenna and the Spartak Stadium are turned into places of reunion. The third one, “Landscape Square”, is projected as a place of urban activities. This three elements are part of a same strategy, but accomplish different goals: the first one is a viewpoint; the second one is turned into a sport place that reunites the daily activities; the last one sets up an urban Node where the inhabitants are gathered to commemorate and look forward to a future. This operation looks to reunite initiatives of different stakeholders from the public and private sectors, as well as the academy.
-REGULATORY AXIS (Walking through the topography – touching the ground)
This new ground follows the topography of the natural territory (acknowledging them as atemporal witnesses and victims) and connects the limits of the park, weaving the three big moments (activity centers). It is the spine of the project that gives order and allows the discovering of a whole new park.
-DAILY PATHS (Walking through the sky – Living the memory)
This landscape walk paths are stablished as a continuity of the urban tissue and connect the active borders with the new doors previously mentioned. Its shape ( straight lines) arise from the will of connecting in the most efficient and quick way the two sides of the city historicaly separated.
-SIGHT-SCAPES (looking the sky)
The way of connecting the project with the experience of the visitor is through red threads that weave the monuments using the trees, guiding the person through the woods, allowing a look to the past and to himself. This action invites to look the sky and forget the ground.
- WALK-SCAPES (drawing the future in the ground)
New paths that are formed by following the threads, creating a new history of the place that is shaped thanks to the life and its activity. This generates a reciprocal communication with Babyn Yar by allowing the visitors to take conscious of the memory while their paths leave a footprint in the ground.
-INTERACTIVE MEMORIALS (Communicating and educating)
The monuments talk through the interactive modules that communicate and educate about what happened and may happen in Babyn Yar. These are the convergence points of the red threads and are a medium to expose the magnitudes of war in terms of number of victims, of the modalities and repertoire of violence used. They inform dates, facts, names, narrate testimonies, and may even count the growth of the trees, showing in a graphic way the ceaseless life and time movement, that is stronger than death. This pavilions are public space elements that allow the use of the new information and communication technologies.
“Deambulation is the achievement of a state of hypnosis by walking, a disorienting loss of control. Il is a medium through which to enter into contact with the unconscious part of the territory”. Francesco Careri. Walk-scapes Walking as an Aesthetic Practice
The devaluated land due to the abandonment will turn into a valuable space thanks to the change into one of the most important centers of reunion.
The creation of a space clearly formed and connected with the city looks forward to generate a space to honor the past, changing it into an active place, full of hope and life for the future of the city. This new urban center most integrate the public sector, the academy and the private sector, around a same goal (cultural, touristic, and residential development) in which everyone wins while the landscaping unites the individual, the city and the territory.
This space must turn into a living lab in which new museums, libraries, educative centers and the most representative cultural spaces of the city should locate around the active border.
In order to fulfill the goal of creating a space of reflection and respect for the victims buried underground, we have understood the project from a spatial dimension that seeks to revive the memory through ceremonial experiences oriented to integrate Kiev’s inhabitants around these monuments, now revitalized by a new organization that unveil them as a whole. Babyn Yar must be present in the daily life, turning it into an open area that reunites the efforts of commemoration through the dialog, the cooperation and the reunion of different communities; a synergy that totalize into a multidimensional and holistic reality.
The project will make a whole out from the parts dispersed in the chaos of history and the terrirory, weaving them in a totality of renewal experiences within and around babynyar
By transforming this park into a new Urban Center everyone would want to be a part of this unique site. Dwellings and the urban services would improve the life quality of those that already live and will bring new inhabitants. This process will value the Babyn Yar area making it an interesting investment option.
DIMENSIONS, FIELDS AND SCOPES
The proposed demarche must define the strategies, tools and process wich seek the appropiate execution and project coordination. For that, three dimensions are proposed: the urban, the sociocnonomic and the envioronmental. The management of each of theses dimensions must interact with three fields:
1.The population: Viwed from a socieconomic scope wich consolidates the relation between Babyn Yar’s activity and the people, under the perspective of land uses. The achievement of this process depends on understanding the context and indentifying which urban actions are or arent appropiate for the comunities, aswell as the moment for accomplishing them.
2.The territory: Envisaged as the areas with potential for the development of mechanisms that contribute the decision taking process, under the mobility and urban articulation subjects.
3. The Institutional: the links between the principal stakeholders (in the public and private sectors) must be generated, under the subjects of management, maintenance and control of the comun objectives.
This hollistic interaction seek to work sistematic and sequentially on 3 socioeconomical scopes:
A.Economic: Change of the urban land value. Besides the phisicall intervations proposed for the park, the land use in it’s perimeter must be modified and the buildable potential. In order to increase land value, different interventions must be done seeking to improve integrally the urban and environmental conditions. The city (it’s government and the private groups) must take advantage of this future tendency.
B. Funding of the Urban Improvements. The governement administration must hold part of this land value as from its valorization could depend the financing. Different funding mechanisms area proposed:
-Participation on Urban Land Gain Tax
-Tax Increment Financing
-Ecnonomic exploitation of public space
-Compensation by Building Rights Transfer.
-Public-Private Partnership in Public Space
These increased land values depend on:
-The mobility investment: accesibility, intermodal transport (metro, commuter train, integrated transport system, bikeways, bycicle paths and parkings)
-The concept of compact city or proximity urbanism, there coould be more and better access to services, commerce, public space located in the nwe park area.
-A better urban quality based on human scale planining.
-A higher foreign or regional investment D. Socioeconomic Strategy of Public Housing Management An inclusive model should be develope: the new land uses must not gentrificate. The housing development around the nodes should be done by a Participatory Design Approach and the Public Administration should prevent the land value speculation. In conclusion, new uses should be stimulated in the park surroundings in order to generate a Sustainable City Model: dense (many inhabitants in a small surface), compact (uses within walking distances) and mixed (a non zoned city that propiate the mixture of activities), as exposed by Richard Rogers in his book Cities for a Small Planet.
David Humberto Delgado Rodriguez — Manager — Bogota, Colombia
Andres Felipe Delgado Rodriguez — Coordinator — Bogota, Colombia
Employees, students, freelance collaborators: Carlos Eduardo Rodriguez Vaca, Lauratatiana Victoria Marroquin, Alfredo Escallon Gomez, Maria Del Pilar Mora Silva
THE BEST MEMORY OF THE DEAD IS THE SPACE FOR THE ALIVE
Goal: to create an area, which will serve memorial, informative and recreational issues.
The Program of the creation of such an area is based on two principles:
1) the Organizational one;
2) the Functional one.
The Organizational principle:
Nobody has the right to decide what Babiy Yar will look like, it is a place of interaction. We propose the way of finding the solution. Each part of it should result from a competition or a professional workshop, involving the civil organizations and local people.
The Functional principle:
There are five definite functional zones:
1) The Memorial zone (the executions zone 1941-1943).
2) The Memory zone (the zone of cemeteries).
3) The Silence zone (the zone of man-made disaster origin).
4) The Museum and The Park.
5) The Recreation zone (the historical landscape area).
Zone 1. The Memorial - the place of admiration.
1.1. Remove the existing pathways and close access to the area using the existing changes in topography of the area and organize a single lawn area.
1.2. Connect the zones of tragedy separated by Melnikova Street by a bridge, organize a single memorial route.
1.3. The lawn area should be 100001 sq. m. (the number of the victims of the executions).
1.4. Each meter of the lawn should have a solar-powered LED-light. 100001 lights will burn in remembrance of killed people at night time.
1.5. Mark the place of executions by a spherically shaped dent in the earth. This symbol is a successive one for this territory.
1.6. Cut through the existing trees and not to plant new ones. In the long-term perspective, clear the lawn out of trees due to their natural aging.
Zone 2. The Memory zone – the place of meditation.
2.1. Remove all the discordant objects on the territory of the destroyed cemeteries (Jewish, Karaite, Muslim, Orthodox, Evangelical, etc) first the gas station and garages on Melnikova and Oranzhereynaya Streets, clear the land.
2.2. Organize a park with sacred symbols on the cleared territories (individual project).
2.3. Restore the existing cemetery complex and crop the trees.
Zone 3. The Silence zone - the place of contemplation.
3.1. Crop the trees on the site of a technical settler, symbolizing the displacement of earth in 1961. This will create panoramic views of the Zone 4 from Oleny Telihy Street.
3.2. Repair the existing pathways, arrange solar-powered lighting.
Zone 4. The museum and the park – the place of understanding.
4.1. Build the Museum "Babiy Yar".
4.2. Globally restore the territory of the existing park;
4.3. Connect the museum and O. Telihy Street by a symbolic "Bridge of Life" lining the edge of the Zone 1.
4.4. Create an Alley of saints along the "Bridge of Life".
Zone 5. The Recreation zone - the place of rest.
5.1. Create an extreme-park with entrances through the zones 1, 2, 4, and a passage from Hertsen Street and Vrubel Descent;
1) The road of death. Pave the roadway and sidewalk with a red quartzite;
2) The tank ditch. Make a non-figurative composition of the aged iron and live plants and flowers at the area separating the bus parking (individual project).
3) Create a hill with a solar-powered down lights on the lawn at the place of executions at O. Telihy Street, 25.
Olena Dubrova — Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine
Dmytro Smyrnyy — Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine
Employees, students, freelance collaborators: Vladimir Shevchenko, Anton Mitrakhov, Vitaly Vasyagin
The main objective of the project is to save existing functional zoning without the addition of other activities on the territory. The already existing zoning, historical background and planning restrictions are taken in consideration.
Some new monuments might be erected in the future to outline the pathways to the places of mass Jewish executions which were regularly taking place in the area during the German fascist regime occupation. It might be small reoccuring memorial signs built into pedestrian pavements alongside Melnykova Street and Dorohozhytska Street. The route may be used as a main direction for organized excursions. The wooden viewing points on higher levels of the Babyn Yar and the access to them will give visitors an option to see and feel the spirit of the place. The visually powerful paved area close to the metro station, which remains empty at the moment, is suggested as a placement for a new monument.
The area near the Dorohozhychi metro station was chosen as the fragment of the master plan because it hosts large amount of people daily, be it casual pedestrians, passengers of the public transport changing routes or people meeting there for recreation. As the main purpose of the proposal is to save existing landscape because of its historical and natural significance according to the Kyiv Master Plan 2020, it is decided to keep the majority of these visitors closer to the main entrance to the metro station and away from the parks and monuments. It is proposed to organize public areas and recreation zones consisted of wooden stages and podiums to create improvised open air amfitheaters, that can serve as auditoriums for open-air lectures and performances. Therefore, the roof of the metro station is suggested for these purposes, as, at the moment, it remains almost empty, and is a very convenient connection part between different levels of the terrain. It is also proposed to use the softer eco-friendly pavement for the roof and the pedestrian roads. Recycled wood or wooden pallets can be used for podiums. It is highly recommended to clear the entrances to the metro station from small chaotic architectural forms and to keep the market place built into the existing structure of the station. It will stop disorienting visitors and will clear the view of the park. The implementation of high grasses with various textures alongside the main routes will emphasize directions to the monuments and open air auditoriums. High grasses will also underline the ‘wild’ feel of the park.
Mariia Poltorachenko — Architectural Assistant — Olsztyn, Poland
BREATHING OF THE VALLEY
A PLACE OF COMMEMORATION
A skilful and deft manipulation of the terrain which aims to emphasise the formr water course. A succession of hollows running from south to north will intersperse the copses. These spaces will be complemented by flower meadows and perennial plants and grasses. There will be something blooming in the park throughout the whole year. At the heart of the park, the large pond is the focus of the valley’s water. This watery mirror will be enlivened by the vertical symphony of several water jets. On the western side will be a large, accessible space of filtering vegetation.
The layout is planned to be a symbolic representation of the number of human losses. 100,000 posts will therefore be installed in the park, inside newly excavated hollows but also in areas of forestation. They will be situated in former places of execution. These posts will be simple vertical elements, which will be carved and able to produce sound with the passage of the wind.
A new building will house the memorial museum. It will be a place of information and exchange, a starting point for annotated pathways.
A PLACE OF ACCORD
At the centre of the park is the square. It is the link between the pond, the large lawn and the new buildings. This adaptable space is a very open area which can host numerous demonstrations or commemorations. To the south of the large lawn, the sports ground will focus and enhance the current uses. The landscaping project will necessitate some considerable construction work. Nontheless, it is a long term vision. The afforestation can evolve over several years with careful and judicious management. In the image of the former valley, the future Babyn Yar park must be a flexible and minimalist project. A breath of air.
Pirre-Francois Le Jeanne — Landscape Designer — Paris, France
Employees, students, freelance collaborators: Chloe Traband
The intense experience of the space emanates from the warmth of the people.
In here, we intended implementation of abstract sense of space ― associating with the liberal society.
The circulation through the path gives importance to the location, as the foundation of the people, this park stands at liberty. We endeavor such memorial space that people would visit to feel the abstract sensation surrounding the park.
We gradual ly distribute enormous square, like designing the measure of rhythm within the space. Creating dynamic flow in the location and a static place at silence allow us discovering the foundation
of the humanity, while forming f low line to the pedestrians. Thus, this distinctive canopy in timber structure extends broadly, where movement of the people catch the attention for more attraction.
This canopy represents architecture blending with the nature of park. Various spaces can be experienced under the canopy while these spaces gradually connected to each other as it shifts appearance according to the season. A completely new sense of park where each and every one experience comfort. Small pieces of truss units are collected to assemble one truss structure ― to gather one history.
The research began to study the specific ratio of transmitting sunlight depending the density of the branches and its leaves. Higher the leaves, the openness of space can be achieved. On the other hand, small continuous spaces can be achieved by having leaves closer to the ground. The proposal will be realized by using wooden structure as it can adopt the similar aspect of gradual change that forest has.
Analyzing the form by ref lect ing the “forest” . By the use of thin wood mater ials, compose three-dimensionally up towards to form truss-like ceiling to express the trees. Beams and columns are distributed randomly depending on the height of the roof mounted. The dynamic configuration of forest is achieved through the continuous changes lead by this method. Then, double-laminated glass (acrylic syrup resin bonded) are used for coating to reflect Skyline trees of the forest.
Experience of space in the process of architecture The volume of the structure is modified based on the location context. The gradual fluctuation in truss reflects the movement of the people or various human activities held under. This structure allows absorbing the energy that people brings, and again, spread it through the space. We intended to make a memorable place where people meet perception of architecture through the "experience of space".
In detail, combination of timber in 38mm x 140mm forms the successive truss. Each of the truss eaves is composed in various lengths, and set each without blocking the visuals by giving intervals. Moreover, thin timber materials have intimacy to the human scale. These structural members are straight yet the formation of the truss gradually changes, like drawing a curve, representing an urban scale. Such curved surface space in timber, could be like another home for the people in the city. The basic truss piece is composed of two shifting vertex gable trusses joint together. Each truss is made of two-by-four standard pre-cut timber instead of special materials, overlapped and screwed with sandwich panel screw. Also, we implemented simple framing method as we consider the progressive construction method in the future.
Kohki Hiranuma — Architect — Osaka, Japan
Jun Sato — Representative — Tokyo, Japan
Employees, students, freelance collaborators: Takehiro Muramatsu, Shoko Gurtner Matsumoto