New buildings or large structures are designed on the competition site.
To preserve our children from being victims, becoming executioners or indifferent spectators.
Forewarned is forearmed
The memorial complex site is designated by using new elements, placed in another level, out of contact with a ground surface.
The scale was revealed, the perception was modified.
New environment was created.
5-dimensions come as follows: 3D + depth + time, history, information
Maryna Harbar — Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine
Volodymyr Gnatienko — Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine
Yuriy Harbar — Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine
Volodymyr Buka — Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine
Olga Beskupska — Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine
Kateryna Rozit — Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine
New buildings or large structures are designed on the competition site. Usage of national, religious or political symbols.
This toponym forever etched in the memory of the international community, as the Yar itself landed into a high plateau on the outskirts of Kiev. The tragedy of Babiy Yar remained in history as one of the evil characters rule of totalitarian ideological goals (human suppression, community management and manipulation of its mind) over the value of human life.
values and goals
Both of these terms refer to the basic philosophical categories.
Where the value is an idea that influences the conscious realization of a human choice of the particular type of behavior or action, and the goal is the category of purposes implementation management.
Valuable installation precedes the goal setting.
Humanist worldview is guided by the scale of "humanity - inhumanity."
All appropriate or not contrary to humanity, is a value of the humanistic worldview.
All that is inhuman, is an antivalue.
All that is contradictory to itself and is made up of a "mixture" of positive and negative, is pseudo-value to critical evaluation.
Value is moral, because it goes back to the fundamental philosophical Socrates triad "Truth, Goodness, Beauty."
In this sense, the value itself is the goal.
targets instead of values
The paradigm of anti-values and pseudo-values is expressed in the slogan: "The end justifies the means." It comes to the fore end.
To realize the ideological objectives of Nazism - occupiers used the topographic place value. The choice of yhevenue for actions of mass extermination of people was determined by the convenience of the territory of Babi Yar, Kiev suburbs near the city cemeteries.
Subsequently, the historical value of the landscape of the Babi Yar served as a reminder of the guilt of the totalitarian Soviet regime, cast adrift with the violence of Nazism, whose ideology and methods which have been known around the world.
Hiding, concealment of this fact was the ideological purpose, which determines the policy of the Soviet post-war urban planning area of Babi Yar.
"Premeditation oblivion" introduced pseudo-values by the methods of achieving this goal:
a) demonstrative and administrative (placing the television station and the TV tower on the top of the necropolis residential development and major infrastructure);
b) economic, entailing Kurynivska disaster of 1961;
c) the formal bureaucratic, that indirectly led to the leveling of the historical value of the landscape. to today's chaotic development and inexpressive territory compromises with respect to its memorialization.
the most important task of the project
The approval of the priority values of the paradigm over the paradigm purposes.
Values as a target.
the embodiment of the phenomenology of the Babi Yar (images, meanings, "the place of the spirit" living area) into the morphology of project (shape, powerful means of architecture and environmental design).
"Babi Yar" Memorial Park status defines its difference from other types of "organized landscapes" and highlights its symbolic value.
Baby Yar’s memory symbol is its topography.
The topographic survey has adequate conditional layers.
In layers - geodesic, historical, ideological, socio-cultural - lies formula meaning "place of the spirit of" Babi Yar
CONCEPT - (from lat.Conceptio - understanding the system) the leading idea
palimpsest (from grech.παλίμψηστον from πάλιν «back» and ψηστός «scraped")
manuscript on parchment (less papyrus) over washed away or scraped text
When applied to the project - is: expression and articulation polustёrtyh layers and meanings and creating new ones.
to the programme
The authors are sensitive to the limitations and guidelines of the contest programmes that reflect the complexity of the current situation around the site of Babi Yar. However, given the fundamental importance of the contest and its conceptual nature, the authors consider it their duty to speak out on this issue uncompromisingly. Even if this may be an obstacle to the consideration of the project by an international jury. Therefore, the project includes basic installation, expanding the scope of the Programme and which treat its limitations dialectically. World humanistic value of Babi Yar dictates authors this right.
basic project installation
1.Toponym «BABIY YAR», rooted in the minds of the international community must be preserved
2. The name of the subway station should be changed accordingly.
3. Upper metro station vestibule should be exempted from trade pavilions, expanded and reformatted into a semi-underground museum of the Holocaust, on the surface of a glass topped with a labyrinth - a symbol of hopelessness and sacrificial obedience.
4. The last section of the sorrowful way of people should be marked by a monumental Memory Wall (authors and A.Rybachuk V.Melnichenko), was originally planned for Babi Yar and destroyed on Baykova hill in Kiev by the Soviet authorities in 1974
5. TV tower complex, built on the site of the Fraternal Cemetery, while maintaining its operations proposed to be turned into a transparent obelisk-columbarium «MONUMEMENTO MORI» - a symbol of respect for the life-affirming death.
6. Topographic terrain as an essential component, an involuntary "gunner" and indirect partner of the tragedy should be symbolised.
Memorial Park status requires cleaning both the territory and its borders and approaches of all constructions that do not conform to this status. Status of the landscape, the nature of its green spaces, alleys tracing, situational placement of monuments are in flagrant non-compliance with the presentation of the idea of perpetuating the memory, cannot be compared with recognised global peers. This is a consequence of pseudo-paradigm, the essence of which is a palliative and formality. In the aspect of the memorial this question requires a radical revision: Babi Yar Park has the right to have an individual approach to the formation of its image, along with the Park of Glory, World War II Park, Baikov memorial complex cemetery in Kiev.
installation and project funds
1. Park Babi Yar must have clear boundaries, at least within the area delineated by the Program. Not fences, but retaining walls.
2. Landscape Memorial Park within these borders ... ... emphasise the natural topography, the plane and ravines. Bedding and layout.
3. Rehabilitation of green spaces should free the territory from low-value species and form a landscape park in the botanical format. Lawns, picturesque groups of trees and shrubs, flower meadows and orchards.
4. Trace avenues should be a priority no formal picturesque, but to serve the idea of a memorial. Easy walking with prams should be respected but in strict accordance with this format.
5. Placing the necessary services and facilities - toilets, kiosks, policing, the technical staff lays down in the planning system
Petr Markman — Director — Kyiv, Ukraine
Aleksandr Makarenko — Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine
Kseniya Fedotova — Architect — Netishyn, Ukraine
Natalia Dovbysh — Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine
Employees, students, freelance collaborators: Remil Dovrovinskiy, Igor Koziyanchuk
No full package of submission: no video. New buildings or large structures are designed on the competition site. New monument is designed.
Memorial complex "Babyn Yar" should be considered as a monument to tragic events for the whole humanity. As it is a gravel, a place of crime against humanity and a place of technogenetic disaster which took away a lot of lives, the memorial complex is considered as a place of understanding and interpretation of the past events and their influence on the present. This project is lika a place, which forms life-asserting in spite of awful events in the past and the place where one may get strong belief into the future. That is why in our project the paths are situated in shape of a cut of an old tree, which emphasizes respect to the life in the past and future. Dotty highlighting of the trees reminds us of number of the souls, which was lost here. Dotty highlighting made of fluorescent stones do not require electrical power The aim of the project is to achieve different emotions. A visitor should feel here wierd due to the beauty of the place.
Concept of "Babyn Yar" organization is as a place to think over tragic events of the past and place, where one may get new landmarks by means of landscape design.
A visitor of the memorial complex will get to park zone with regular construction which was created to cause feeling of rationality and logic of the surroudings while moving from underground station "Dorogozhychy" to North-West. Moving through the park a visitor will get into the park zone with a chaotic plan. This decision was meant to cause a feeling of contrast in comparison with the previous regular and discomfort with irrationality. So that one is prepared to go to the next park zone of the new appropriation. The image of new idea appropriaiton is implemented into the sculpture of the tree on one of the hills. The path to the sculpture is going through the existing parkway and through the complicated system of terrasses under the trees. This way we make visitor closer to natural environment and go to the new aim (tree sculpture).
Tragic events of Kurenevska tragedy in 1961 should also be perpetuated on the territory of the complex. On the place where there used to be a deposit of building waste we need to organize a landscape zone as a memorial to technogenetic disaster of the past. Unsteady and waved shapes from concrete elements together with elements of lawn and trees will remind a visitor of nature fragility against machinability of modern world.
To make visitors of the memorial complex closer to natural environment we should create a terrases, which let us touch environment and get acquainted with elements of national historical and memorial reserve "Babyn Yar".
Dmitry Iv (Ivanchenko) — Sculptor-Designer — Kharkiv, Ukraine
Alexey Stetsenko — Architect — Prudyanka, Kharkiv region, Ukraine
Yuri Trushin — Architect — Kharkiv, Ukraine
No full package of submission: no video, only one aerial view.
Babin Yar, Landscape of Memory
Babyn Yar is a site of denial and oblivion. The atrocities enacted on the site over the course of 20th century were rendered unfathomable by the denial and cover-up that followed each one. Each act of human monstrosity was obscured, literally buried by layers of artificial and accelerated landscape strata, denying both individuals and society the ability to comprehend - to process and overcome — their tragedies. These political and psychological denials were physically constructed/enacted through landscape, architecture, and urbanism.
This proposal for a commemorative landscape for Babyn Yar seeks to elucidate the traumatic history of events here through a dialogue of landscape elements that bring clarity to a site that has been manipulated so dramatically over the decades. No existing site elements are erased. The preservation of all monuments, buildings, roads, and paths on the site are brought into relief as a single gesture to bring clarity to a place that, for over a century, has been obfuscated. The existing site features are brought into sharper focus through the employment of a hexagonal mozaic geometry. Out of this geometry grows the landscape site infrastructure needed to connect the existing memorials and provide a framework for introducing future commemorations. The hex geometry provides for paving/circulation, planting zones, and informational displays. These disparate uses and the wide- ranging types and locations of existing monuments are united in a single gesture through the hex-grid device.
More than just offering geometry, the gesture creates a new experience on the site, which is the driving and most critical component of the design. Within this geometry, new maple trees (acer saccurium) are inter-planted with stainless steel cable vine trellis supporting new vine plantings (Clematis Clematis x "Vanso"). In September of each year, coinciding with the anniversary of the massacre in 1941 of the Jewish community, the combination of Maple fall color (yellow) and Clematis flower blooms (blue) will dapple the site in a color range honoring the loss of life, culture and the oblivion of the vibrant community that was wiped away from Kiev in the horrific event.
Just at the edges of the hex-geometry and ceremonial planting, the reintroduction of fir trees is proposed. Fir trees were once a common and robust forest species throughout north and central Ukraine. As the fir trees gave way to more lucrative commercial forestry (cedar for example), much of the fir trees were lost. This design proposes their successional re-introduction. Fir trees and maple trees are symbiotic in their sharing of nutrients and soil in typical forest morphology, and their healthfulness together is reintroduced here. In addition, the consistent green backdrop of the fir trees will provide a clear and appropriate proscenium against which to witness the September emergence of yellow and blue of the maple and clematis.
Along Melnikova Street, the hex pattern establishes a commemorative geometry. Within this geometry or folded steel hex lights protruding from the sidewalk. These lights glow for pedestrian safety at night throughout the year, but on the anniversary of the Jewish massacre, they emanate a distinctive blue light, tying them together with the colors of the seasonal planting strategy.
Beyond the main hex-grid, visitors can find their way along three new informal pathways that descend through some of the last remaining native topography on the site, providing a rough approximation of the final walk taken by Kiev’s Jewish citizens. While their final walk arrived at the site of execution, these modest pathways land at the bottom of a slope at a hex-shaped reflecting pool that also collects the stormwater and snowmelt runoff from these pathways; a combination of sustainability performance and spiritual reflection.
Additionally, improved athletic facilities are provided to the neighborhood and city and Kyrilovskii Hai is preserved as a recreational space. While the historic zone of Babyn Yar is designated as a commemorative landscape, the proposal also calls for the gradual acquisition of the buildings along Melnikova Street, which could lead to the construction of a commemorative campus.
This combination of reflection and action, sustainability and spirituality, clarity of movement and moments of delight are the hallmarks of the proposed scheme.
Alexander Ortenberg — Professor, Architecture — Pomona, California, USA
Dasha Ortenberg — Architectural Designer — Oakland, California, USA
Tim Molette — Landscape Architectural Designer — Oakland, California, USA