GENESIS OF THE IDEA
The history of Babyn Yar and the Dorohozhytskyi Necropolis can be divided in two periods, the first is the period preceding World War II and the second one, is the period when the Nazis invaded Kyiv. The first period is being characterized by the establishment of a number of cemeteries, when as a result of those this area has been called Necropolis. In the second period, cruel events took place in Babyn Yar, where, in fact, statistics record that 90.000- 100.000 victims were killed in Babyn Yar and the surrounding area. The genesis of the idea derives for Babyn Yars History, To be more specific, in this area of intervention there is a necropolis and a place where cruel events took part during world war II. This will be the starting point for the concept map.
What is the purpose and the meaning of this intervention, what messages we want to convey to the people, what feelings we want to evoke. These are feelings of hope, happiness, relaxation, love, controversial feelings if we compared them with those emotions that all the victims felt, for all their relatives and all the people that thought of them, for those who have been killed and those who have been buried there. In addition to that, we wanted our intervention to be ecofriendy and ultra- sustainable, we had to keep the existing landscape, all the trees and plant new ones, make it even more green and ecofriendly, maintain instate all the memorials, raise and vitalize them. These areas when all the memoriars are located had to be highlighted through our intervention. We wanted to create a park where social interaction can take part there, pass their time, relax, enjoy, interact with each other. This transition had to be done, a place where all those cruel events took place, where all these people have been buried, a place of pain, displeasure, sadness had to become a place of happiness, optimism, well-being.
All the pain that derives from the victims’ deaths, had to be passed to the surrounding area which can be reclaimed, is transformed in something good, optimistic, euphoric! This metaphoric transition of pain, can be symbolized by the traumas and wounds caused from the bullets in the corpse of the victims, seen as ballistic wounds opened to the body of the executed. These “holes “ can be opened on the ground, in different places and dimensions and symbolize the bullet holes that penetrated the bodies as a result of the mass executions that took part during the WWII. The same thing can be done ( this metaphoric transition of pain) with the bomb craters, cracks that have been created from the bombings, mine explosions, tank attacks, all the military equipment used from the Nazis. Through these holes on the ground that symbolise the traymas on the victim corpses, we wanted to show the pain that had be caused to the victims, and passes to the surrounding area, the land of Babyn Yar. As a concept deep meaningful that considers that earth and humanity are interconnected. This concept is called BIOPHILIA. The Biophilia hypothesis suggests that there is an instinctive bond between human beings and other living systems. There is a connection between human and earth.
“From death comes life”, so, this is our next step, the pass from death to life, from pessimism to optimism, from despair to hope.. This can be achieved through these openings, where new life can be born, this new life is symbolized by the growth of new trees, plants, that emerging through these ground holes.
A good image of this concept is this, imagine an old plaza that is ruined in parts from the bombings, the shootings, the tanks, and as a result cracks, bomb craters, cracking’s, leave their marks to the plaza, but after some years, trees, plants, gush from those cracks, from those craters from those ruins, creating new life and a new aspect of the plaza.
This concept of Biophilia, is also applied to Necropolis, where all the dead’s have been buried, on the ground above them, new life emerged. Every death , has given new life through the rise of a tree that has grown above the tomb. In this way one place with a lot of tombs can be imagined like a forest.
This intervention has the main scope to vitalize the area, giving a new aspect at Babyn yar, transform the pain to love but at the same time memorize all the victims, those who have passed out there and also those who have been buried there for all of these years. From all these deaths, this park functions as a means through which the transition from sadness to delight and from death to life are feasible because of the power of the earth, thus this intervention area becomes the linking point between them, earth mediates and creates new life. For all of these reasons, this new park has been called, “BIOPHILIA” park.
Panagos Christos — Architect Engineer — Thessaloniki, Greece
This project proposes to solve a memorial task by organization of standardized monuments-symbols (chrome pillars) on the mass graves. The personalization data symbols decided by drawing names of the victims on the monuments.
Pedestrian infrastructure is proposed to solve by applying the maximum figuratively - breathable coating, which is fits more organically, given the complex historical and cultural character of the area.
Gregory Lyssak — Architect — Saint-Petersburg, Russia
The anonymity of the submission may not be maintained in the video.
We propose an emotional experience that captures the palimpsest of historical events, creates a comprehensive memory and unifies, over time, the park by reclaiming the land in honor of those murdered and buried. A central space will proliferate plant species, endangered and symbolic, that will sustain the park's horticulture.
Not a comfort zone but a disturbing, wordless space, where only the names of those killed appear. Our proposal affirms memory with materials and plants that are symbolic or create new meanings.
For the sites of execution, we propose to add "fill" for walking, surfaced with 100,000 pavers, and reserve the ground where atrocities took place and remains exist as unwalkable. From the air, the outline of Babyn Yar appears as a tree root. We extend this metaphor, creating a land turned inside out and filled with calcified roots. The ground above the burials at Babyn Yar and Pavlov are voids.
Our proposal continues with a diamond matrix superimposed over the entire site that is both map and paths for reconstituting and documenting the site's historical palimpsest. Plantings and meadows infill the diamonds. The paths are 40 meters apart. The matrix is both the map and the endless, contemplative paths.
These paths and meadows will reclaim land surrounding existing non-park uses and their design bridges current use with the memorial mission. The desecrated tombstones will be recovered from the site and returned "home" to these infill areas within the borders of each cemetery.
The reclaiming of sacred ground proceeds from all burial sites to a central place where the ground opens, sheltering a protected island of local endangered plant species, a gift of life, of possibility, a place to honor the righteous and survivors of Babyn Yar and nurture our future– the ones that almost disappeared but survived with the help of the righteous.
Symbolic of building unity for the memorial site, plantings are selected to reflect the specific cultures of the cemeteries. All cemeteries and historical events' boundaries are circumscribed by perimeter paths .
The Path of Sorrow is marked with four interventions from the march to Babyn Yar on September 29 - 30, 1941 and treated with a procession of “naked” trees.
Finally, the river path flows gently down through the ravine across the flood disaster zone and provides a nursery home for commemorative plants that replenish the memorial park.
Douglas A. Balder — Architect — New York, USA
Katia Shraga — Content Developer — New York, USA
Usage of national, religious or political symbols.
The main idea of the project - the overlay of a new "hidden & symbolic" planning structure on the old Soviet grid of orthogonal axes in existing park. Leveling frame remains, but is now enriched by new routes, angles and objects. New public spaces with symbolic directions and axis’s with symbolic orientation now appears on the stage.
Entrance to the park is shifted by 145 meters east from the intersection with the "Square of gates" – three road directions where everyone is free to choose his own route.
To the way of Jews leads the right gate. Its axis is oriented to the existing Menorah, but the path leads along the broken trajectory, piercing the hill. Angles breaks punctuated according to the dates of largest losses. Over the road located bridges that add stress atmosphere. At the exit of the "maze" road forks, one leads up to the "Minorah" hill. The other leads to the platform with a stage and stationary places, incised in relief. Universal space is designed both for ritual activities, and for summer movies, theater acts and other activities. This space connects us to the central axis of the road-Christians path.
The path of Christians - is a central road leading from the main gate. Spatially, it leads us to the area shaped as a cross in a circle. At the ends of this cross planned the space for the new memorial zones. Cross sectors interpreted as landscaped areas: grove, meadow, water, ravine. At it’s own end, the road adjoins with the previously breached main avenue of the park.
The path of “Others” – is not on the third road, left-sided from the "Gate square”. This avenue is not saturated with new elements, but sets up the new directions of the park structure, piercing the old plan.
Author also proposes "B" option, that provides a reunion of broken road parts in the park. Let it sufficiently and utopian, but maybe in the future.The aim of the project is to create a passage between the Soviet park with the monuments located to the south and the main space of the park.
Wide elliptical passage, with the park administration accommodation, the information point and museumification of the space. To fix the places associated with sad events, memorials are set with a brief reminder of past tragedies: -Exodus, -Path,- Morning, -Rotation.
Andrey Bogomolov — Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine
The anonymity of the submission may not be maintained in the video.
The name Babyn Yar has been associated with profound sorrow for the past half-century. We would like to change the attitude towards this place; not by erasing the memories of pain but by carefully cherishing the legacy and the memory of the people killed and by providing a possibility for a new direction.
The mission of Babyn Yar Park is to provide a year-round, comfortable and safe public space that will promote openness and respect for history and nature. In our concept we tried to develop the existing nature of Babyn Yar without disrupting the landscape. The park will be adaptable and open to flexible development plans.
The main concept behind the Babyn Yar DROPS project is a stone dropping into still water. Just like the concentric waves that grow and fade outwards over time, we will use a central space as the focal point of an outward growing structure. We will have three zones; a memorial area, an area of enlightenment and a space for promenading. The Promenade zone will be the largest area and it will be located near the borders of the park. It will be devoted to leisure and reflection and it will attract various types of walkers from mothers with children to students and professors enjoying serene contemplation. The Enlightenment area will be smaller and it will be devoted to those brave and curious people who will explore the complex history of the land.
The third zone, the Memorial Area, will be located in the center of the Babyn Yar territory on the southern edge of the park. A small pond or fountain will portray the principle symbol behind our park; waves echoing out from a dropped stone. Visitors will be subtly reminded of the history of the space without bringing them deep sorrow. They will see that while the waves are strong at first, with time they fade but never disappear. A system of elevated sidewalks will connect all areas of the park, allowing visitors to experience new perspectives and views. The elevation of the sidewalks will coincide with the number of genocide victims buried in different areas of Babyn Yar.
This park will go beyond providing year-round public events and local festivals. This park will remind visitors of our collective past and it will inspire them to create a new beginning.
Yuriy Sheredega — Team Leader — Moscow, Russia
Natalya Kopeykina — Cheker — Moscow, Russia
Olesya Polaguta — Translator — Moscow, Russia
Yana Glotova — Designer — Moscow, Russia
Employees, students, freelance collaborators: Polina Sizikova, Anna Sokolova, Roman Krushelnitskii, Kristina Binatyan, Taras Gegelskiy, Alexey Golikov, Tom Blackwell, Alexey Iiskovoy, Alexey Ulyanov
No connection to the competition site.
Conflicts on the territory of Kiev, Ukraine due to the economic politics in this case in the form of natural gas. Where they want to control a region of Ukraine that is a "way" to deliver natural gas to Europe. To that end, the design memorial park will restore the memory of the struggle of the victims who have maintained the territory of Ukraine. Accompanied by simulating the processing of energy in the present as a depiction of the fighters of natural gas in Kiev, Ukraine.
Design created a comprehensive memorial hall with a new paradigm of human beings in the history and memorial park into shape as biosentrisme. Where not to bring back memories of the tragic conflict in the past but showed the fighting spirit that occurs when the conflict took place as a future resurrection.
Approach Biocentric architecture, so the space is present which is honoring the history of the struggle in the ravine Babyn Yar, Kiev, Ukraine and revival for the visitors no longer only limited sites, monuments, museums and other forms, and can show the simulation processing of energy as a depiction of the fighters of energy in Kiev, Ukraine.
Arman Yulianta — Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Syifaullinnas — Yogyakarta, Indonesia
We intent to:
- Present and immortalize the tragic 1941-1943 history of Babyn Yar to current and future generations by means of architecture, sculpture, word, video and audio synthesis.
- Create a worthy monument to thousands of people who died at this place.
- Realize this should not ever happen again anywhere.
The above-mentioned tasks define three main components of the proposed ensemble:
1. Existing monument to citizens and prisoners of war who were killed by German invaders in Babyn Yar.
2. Pantheon of Memory Museum where evidences of Nazi atrocities will be stored and demonstrated.
3. Route – alley on the edge of the former ravine (“Edge of Life”).
The nature of the Babyn Yar historic-memorial complex was defined by existing arrangements: the available land area with partially saved ravine where the monument to citizens and war prisoners killed by Nazis in Babyn Yar is situated.
The concept of current proposal is an effort to find a laconic, ideologically capacious, visionary aesthetic and organic design decision.
The existing sculpture composition - monument to soviet citizens and prisoners of war killed by Nazis in 1941-1943 - will have the key ideological and visionary meaning, while the Pantheon of Memory Museum building, being the centre of the Babyn Yar historic-memorial complex composition, will have the historical and educational meaning. Memorial ensemble is united by single pedestrian route situated on the edge of the former ravine (“Edge of Life”).
Other memorial symbols located on the area (bounded by Oleny Teligy, Melnykova, Dorogozhytska and Oranzhereyna streets) are proposed to move to Babyn Yar park to the north from Melnykova street.
The architectural forms of Pantheon of Memory Museum of Nazi victims do not have any symbols of ethnic or confession communities as the events happened here in 1941-1943 are a mankind-level tragedy. The museum exposition should widely display all the facts and events victims of which were the people of different nationalities, confessions, ideological preferences, political orientation as well as prisoners of war.
Exposition of Pantheon of Memory Museum is created based on authentic documents, photos, fine arts with the use of video and audio technical facilities and special effects.
The space of Pantheon of Memory Museum of Nazi victims has a shape of kurgan symbolizing mass people grave. Roof of the building is covered with grass layer that gradually and naturally changes to the horizontal area lawn.
Museum's entrance group is designed in the shape of human eye in plan. A symbol of people’s tears and sorrow, thin water streams are falling down the textured surface of the entrance outer walls. Roof of the museum’s entrance is filled with thin layer of water. In the middle of the roof, a round-shaped light lamp is placed and from the height this is perceived as a human eye filled with tears. Southern concrete textured wall of the museum has light holes imitating machine gun holes as a symbol of execution of unprotected people performed by Nazis at this place. Down the “Shot wall”, under the museum’s console viewing area, there is a flat bowl with its bottom and sides decorated with red-colored cobalt glass thanks to which the non-freezing water in the pool will seem red as a symbol of Nazi victims’ blood.
A bridge symbolizing “Way to Eternity” is compositional and emotional dominant of the museum’s internal space. It is situated on the 2nd floor level on transverse axle of the building and ends up with a viewing area and a light hole in a shape of gun sight looking through which one can visually perceive the monument. At the beginning of the bridge, on podiums there are small stands for one to light and leave the candles after the exposition journey. The “Shot wall” stays exposed at all height of the internal space that provides a possibility to visually perceive it from all museum levels and creates special emotional atmosphere for museum visitors.
There are three floors in the Museum: exhibition spaces are located on the first and the second floors, while the third floor hosts service and auxiliary rooms. The second and the third floors are of an “isle” type to ensure holistic perception of the whole internal space. Museum’s first floor ground mark is situated on the level of existing ravine mark next to the pedestal of the killed soviet citizens and prisoners of war monument.
Main entrance to the Pantheon of Memory Museum is oriented to Melnykova street. Journey along the memorial complex starts from the inclined corridor as a symbol of “Memory Path”. On the way to the memorial museum the width of the corridor becomes smaller while the height of the side concrete walls becomes bigger. “Memory Path” ends up with a “Sorrow Square” that is shaped by two concrete retaining walls curvilinear in plan and by the “Tears wall” of the Pantheon of Memory Museum entrance group. Journey along the memorial complex ends up with the “Edge of Life” pedestrian alley.
Side area, located in parallel to Melnykova street, between Oleny Teligy and Oranzhereyna streets, is provided for the visitors’ transport.
*** The design proposal provides creation of a part of the “Babyn Yar” historic-memorial complex devoted only to the tragic events happend in 1941-1943 and located on the area bounded by Oleny Teligy, Melnykova, Dorogozhytska and Oranzhereyna streets.
Prior to the construction of the Pantheon of Memory Museum the affected area is subject to thorough examination for any remaining ashes of killed people that are to be re-buried in bed of honor in the area of Melnykova and Oranzhereyna streets corner.
Mykola Levchuk — Chief Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine
Pavlo Shypovych — Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine
Mariia Miroshnychenko — Architect — Kyiv, Ukraine